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Magma transfer at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) before the 1538 AD eruption
Mauro A. Di Vito1 *, Valerio Acocella2 , Giuseppe Aiello3 , Diana Barra1,3, Maurizio Battaglia4,5, Antonio Carandente1, Carlo Del Gaudio1, Sandro de Vita1, Giovanni P. Ricciardi1, Ciro Ricco1, Roberto Scandone2, Filippo Terrasi6
 
 
1 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Napoli Osservatorio Vesuviano, via 10  Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy.
2  Dipartimento di Scienze Università Roma Tre, Italy.
3 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell’Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università degli Studi di Napoli 13  Federico II, Italy.
4 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza, Roma, Italy.
5 Volcano Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025.
6 Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Seconda Università di Napoli, Italy.
 
 
Scientific Report, 6, 32245, 2016
 
Abstract
 
http://www.distar.unina.it/images/ricerca/Di_Vito_et_al__Fig__3.jpgCalderas are collapse structures related to the emptying of magmatic reservoirs, often  associated with large eruptions from long-lived magmatic systems. Understanding how  magma is transferred from a magma reservoir to the surface before eruptions is a major challenge. Here we exploit the historical, archaeological and geological record of Campi Flegrei caldera to estimate the surface deformation preceding the Monte Nuovo eruption and investigate the shallow magma transfer. Our data suggest a progressive magma accumulation from ~1251 to 1536 in a 4.6±0.9 km deep source below the caldera centre, and its transfer, between 1536 and 1538, to a 3.8±0.6 km deep magmatic source ~4 km NW of the caldera centre, below Monte Nuovo; this peripheral source fed the eruption through a shallower source, 0.4±0.3 km deep. This is the first reconstruction of pre-eruptive magma transfer at Campi Flegrei and corroborates the existence of a stationary oblate source, below the caldera centre, that was feeding lateral eruptions for the last ~5 ka. Our results suggest: 1) repeated emplacement of magma through intrusions below the caldera centre; 2) occasional lateral transfer of magma feeding non-central eruptions within the caldera. Comparison with historical unrest at calderas worldwide suggests that this behavior is common.