Melluso, L., de' Gennaro, R., Fedele, L., Franciosi, L., Morra, V.
Evidence of crystallization in residual, Cl-F-rich, agpaitic, trachyphonolitic magmas and primitive Mg-rich basalt-trachyphonolite interaction in the lava domes of the Phlegrean Fields (Italy).
Geological Magazine, 149, 532-550 (2012)
The lava domes in the northwestern (Cuma), northern (Punta Marmolite) and central (Accademia) parts of the Phlegrean Fields are the subject of this study. The Cuma and Punta Marmolite trachyphonolitic lava domes are among the oldest outcropping Phlegrean products. The Cuma rocks have agpaitic groundmass, with early alkali feldspar, Fe-rich clinopyroxene, Fe-edenite and sodalite and late rosenbuschite, fluorite, baddeleyite, pyrochlore, britholite, monazite, aegirine (often Zr-rich) and exceptionally Fe-Mn-rich olivine. The bulk-rock compositions at Cuma have some of the highest concentrations of Zn, Mn, Zr, Nb, Th, U and lanthanides among the Phlegrean Fields rocks, and some of the lowest MgO, P2O5, Sr, Eu and Ba. The Punta Marmolite dome is chemically less evolved, and lacks characteristic agpaitic minerals, but features alkali feldspar, sodalite, nepheline and relatively Na-poor, Fe-rich hedenbergite, with rare Ca-rich plagioclase xenocryst cores. The Accademia dome, belonging to the recent activity, is latitic to trachytic in composition, has highly forsteritic olivine (with chromiferous spinel inclusions), calcic plagioclase and Mg-rich diopside (±phlogopite) xenocrysts in an evolved host rock (with phenocrysts and microlites of alkali feldspar, Fe-rich cpx, Fe-rich amphibole, magnetite, Fe-rich olivine and accessory baddeleyite, zirconolite and fluorite). There is clear evidence of open-system magma crystallization, in the form of interaction between a crystallizing, primitive shoshonitic basalt in a reservoir already filled by rather evolved trachytic magma. The magmatic evolution towards the evolved compositions is dominated by crystallization of more and more Na-rich alkali feldspar in a Cl-, F-rich and relatively H2O-poor environment. Input of mafic magma is evident in many trachytic eruptions of Phlegrean Fields and even in the products of the Campanian Ignimbrite, but eruptions having mineral assemblages rich in xenocryst phases as well as eruptions virtually free of mafic magma input are also frequently observed throughout the history. This suggests a variable pattern of open- and closed-system crystallization which may be or may be not linked to explosive activity, and that can be caused by intermittent supply of basaltic magma from depth.