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A. Mazzarella  • A. Giuliacci • N. Scafetta

Quantifying the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) coupling to CO2  concentration and to the length of day variations

Theor Appl Climatol
DOI 10.1007/s00704-012-0696-9


The El  Nifio  Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the Earth’s strongest climate fluctuation on inter-annual time scales and has global impacts although originating in  the  tropical  Pacific. Many  point  indices  have  been developed to describe ENSO but the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) is considered as the most representative since  it  links  six  different meteorological parameters measured over  the  tropical  Pacific. Extreme values  of MEI are correlated to the extreme values of atmospheric CO2   concentration rate variations and negatively corre- lated to equivalent scale extreme values of the length of day rate variation. We evaluate a first-order conversion function between MEI and the other two indexes using their annual rate of variation. The quantification of the strength of the coupling herein evaluated provides a quantitative measure to  test the accuracy of  theoretical model predictions. Our results further confirm the idea that the major local and global Earth—atmosphere system mechanisms are significantly coupled and synchronized to each other at multiple scales.