Mondillo N., Balassone G., Boni M., Rollinson G.
Karst bauxites in the Campania Apennines (southern Italy): a new approach
Periodico di Mineralogia (2011), 80, 3 (Spec. Issue), 407-432.
In this study new data on two bauxite districts in the Campania region (southern Italy) are reported: the Matese Mts. and the Caserta province, exploited in the first part of the XX century. The nature and distribution of diagenetic and detrital mineral phases were investigated by means of transmitted-light and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and energy dispersive spectroscopic microanalysis (EDS), whole-rock geochemical analyses (ICP-OES and ICP-MS), complemented by preliminary QEMSCAN® investigation. The textures of the bauxite ore range between oolitic and oolitic-conglomeratic and arenitic. Boehmite is the most abundant phase, while other Al-bearing phases (gibbsite and diaspore) are very subordinate. The Fe-minerals hematite, goethite and lepidocrocite occur, and Ti-minerals anatase and rutile are ubiquitous. Among clay minerals, kaolinite is prevailing at the Regia Piana (Matese Mts.) and illite-montmorillonite in the Caserta province.
Most recorded trace minerals are quartz, calcite, zircon and monazite. Small clusters of not previously detected qandilite [(Mg, Fe2+)2(Ti, Fe3+, Al) O4], and of hercynite-type spinels also occur. By means of QEMSCAN® it has been possible to better recognize some diagenetic textures (e.g. mainly matrix- or ooids-supported bauxite, the clay/Al-hydroxides distribution etc.) and to detect other detrital minerals (feldspar, muscovite, olivine, titanite and possibly a serpentine/talc-like phase). A similar detrital mineral association has been found also in the Aptian “Orbitoline” marls, which are marine sediments supposed to be the non-weathered equivalent of bauxites. Very detailed data about major, minor and trace element (comprising “bauxitophile” and REEs) concentrations and some significant geochemical ratios are reported for the bauxite samples, and a new interpretation on the possible source of the parent material has been proposed. The detrital heavy mineral association may suggest not only a windblown volcanic source material (Dinarides explosive volcanism?), as hypothesized in literature, but also a partial origin from an exposed terrain. The exact nature and paleogeographic position of this source could not be determined by chemical analyses of major and trace elements (including REE), Eu/Eu* and TiO2/Al2O3ratios and Ni-Cr contents. However, due to the isolated position of the Appennine carbonate platform during the Cretaceous, the paleogeographic model precludes any possible fluviomarine transport for the source material (windblown?) of the bauxites.