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The Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse – DiSTAR (Department of Earth, Environmental and Resources Sciences) of the University of Napoli Federico II is one of the oldest Italian research institutes devoted to Earth Sciences. The establishment of the originary Istituto di Geologia e Geofisica (Geology and Geophysics Institute) is related to those of the Real Museo Mineralogico (Royal Mineralogical Museum) and the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Vesuvian Observatory) in AD 1801 and 1841, respectively. Today, the DiSTAR hosts a community of researchers, whose expertise covers the whole spectrum of Earth Sciences, including: stratigraphy, structural geology, geomorphology, engineering geology, paleontology, volcanology, geophysics, applied geophysics, meteorology, georesources, geochemistry, mineralogy, and petrology. Many activities at DiSTAR are carried out through the synergy of various professional capabilities while developing basic and applied research themes. The main research themes having significant social and economic impact include: analysis and mitigation of geological risks, such as those deriving from volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, floods, and coastal erosion; environment and land planning; exploration and sustainable exploitation of natural resources, such as hydrocarbons, mineral resources, and building materials; management and safeguard of water resources; remediation of contaminated sites; conservation and safeguard of cultural heritage. At DiSTAR the researchers employ several tools, including field investigations, 3D reconstruction of subsurface geometries through geological and geophysical methods, laboratory analyses (such as mineralogical, petrographic, geochemical, isotopic and geotechnical determinations), remote sensing data analysis and interpretation, development of geological as well as thematic maps, also in GIS environments.